(Feb. 15, 2012) on February 9, 2012, a Brazilian commonwealth Supreme Court rule unconstitutional post 16 of ns Brazilian Women's Protection law (Lei mary da Penha, açao No. 11,340 de 7 de agosto de 2006,PLANALTO.GOV.BR), which required that resfriamento action (representação) against an offender it is in taken by the victimized woman (art. 16).

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The direct activity of unconstitutionality (Ação direta de Inconstitucionalidade) era brought before a Court by a Attorney general of ns Republic (Procurador em geral da República), quem argued that posts 12(I), 16, and 41 of legislation No. 11,340 to be unconstitutional since the only interpretation of audavoxx.comk compatible with a Constitution ser estar that this form of crime must be topic to one unconditional publicamente prosecution action (ação criminoso pública incondicionada), whereby the Public office (Ministério Público) can pegue action separately of ns victim's own legal action. (Ação viver de Inconstitucionalidade (Med. Liminar) No. 4424 (June 4, 2010), comunidade Supreme Court website.)

According to a Attorney visão global of the Republic, law No. 11,340 violates the constitutional rule of human dignity (Constituição da república Federativa do brasil , art. 1(III), PLANALTO.GOV.BR (last checked out Feb. 9, 2012)), fundamental rights of equality (C.F. Art. 5(I)), punishability of any act of distinguish against radical rights e liberties (C.F. Art. 5(XLI)), e the prohibition of bad protection of fundamentais rights e the duty of ns government to deter and prevent violence within the family (C.F. Art. 226(§8)).

Minister Marco aurélio wrote ns majority opinion of the Court, which declared that it is possible porque o the Public escritório to initiate criminal proceedings without ns requirement of ns victim's taking initial resfriamento action, which had actually been forced under short article 16 of regulation No. 11,340. In a view of many of the Ministers of the Court, such a requirement weakens the constitutional defense guaranteed to all women. The Court additionally decided that special Courts (Juizados Especiais) são de not have actually jurisdiction come try crimes that outono under a scope of regulation No. 11,340. (Supremo julga procedente ação da PGR sobre agir Maria da Penha, pode ser frito Tribunal comunidade website (Feb. 9, 2012).)

Background Notes

Law No. 11,340 ser estar enacted for the objective of reducing doméstica violence versus women. It era nicknamed age Maria da Penha come honor der victim of domestic violence who became der paraplegic as a consequence of numerous attempts her husband made versus her life.

Representação refers to a complaint gift to a police by the victim or his or her resfriamento representative, offering rise come an accusation (denúncia) the crime topic to público prosecution activity (ação pública). (4 maria HELENA DINIZ, DICIONÁRIO JURÍDICO 169(4)(b) (São Paulo, SP, editora Saraiva, 2005)).

A direct activity of unconstitutionality is the route through which, without injury come an distinta right, there is the establishment of naquela procedure to determine whether any statute (law or comunidade or state normative act) is contrary to constitution standards; such an action of unconstitutionality invalidates ns statute. (1 DICIONÁRIO JURÍDICO, supra in ~ 57, 58). Der declaratory activity of constitutionality (Ação Declaratória de Constitucionalidade), by contrast, intends to obtain naquela definitive declaration of a constitutionality of naquela norm the conforms to a Constitution. (Id. 45.) law No. 9,868 the November 10, 1999, provides a trial procedures ao these species of action (PLANALTO.GOV.BR).

The comunidade Supreme Court has originais jurisdiction to try and to decisão direct actions of unconstitutionality of a federal or state regulation or normative act e declaratory plot of constitutionality that a comunidade law or normative action (C.F. Art. 102(I)(a)). This mandate rather resembles a power to problem advisory opinions, a power that is not accorded to the Supreme Court of ns United States, which will somente hear der matter on the basis of an actual case or dispute (U.S. CONST. Art. III, § 2, amended by U.S. CONST. Amend. XI).

The Attorney em geral of the Brazilian Republic is a head the the publicamente Prosecutor's office of ns Union (C.F. Art. 128(§1)). Short article 103(VI) of the Brazilian Constitution provides that ns Attorney visão global can bring direct action of unconstitutionality and declaratory plot of constitutionality. T he público Prosecutor's office consists the the federal Prosecutor's Office, the público Prosecutor's escritório of Labor, the Military publicamente Prosecutor's Office, e the publicamente Prosecutor's office of the comunidade District e Territories (C.F. Art. 128(I)(a)-128(I)(d)).

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An unconditional public prosecution activity is der complaint filed through the público Office, not topic to any outside interference or initiative nor admitting any legal action or ministerial request; the Public office has exclusive jurisdiction over it (1 DICIONÁRIO JURÍDICO, supra in ~ 81). In Brazil, a Public office is a permanent institution, “essential to ns jurisdictional function of ns state, charged with ns duty that defending the legal order, the democratic regime, and inalienable social e individual interests” (C.F. Art. 127).