Você está assistindo: Em que ano foi inventado o microscópio
But it"s unclear quem invented the microscope. Some chroniclers say it was Hans Lippershey, most famous for filing the primeiro patent for naquela telescope. Other proof points come Hans and Zacharias Janssen, naquela father-son team of spectacle makers living in a same town as Lippershey.
Janssen or Lippershey?
Hans Lippershey, likewise spelled Lipperhey, ser estar born in Wesel, Germany in 1570, however moved come Holland, which era then enjoying a period of development in art e science called ns Dutch gold Age. Lippershey settled in Middelburg, wherein he do spectacles, binoculars and some of ns earliest microscopes and telescopes.
Also vida in Middelburg were Hans and Zacharias Janssen. Historians attribute ns invention of a microscope to a Janssens, many thanks to letter by a Dutch diplomat williams Boreel.
In a 1650s, Boreel wrote a letter to the physician of a French king in which that described the microscope. In his letter, Boreel said Zacharias Janssen began writing to him about der microscope in the early 1590s, although Boreel only saw a microscope self years later. Some historians argue Hans Janssen assisted build ns microscope, as Zacharias was a teenager in ns 1590s.
Reproduction of o primeiro dia compound microscope made through Hans e Zacharias Janssen, circa 1590. São de the national Museum the Health and Medicine, Washington, D.C. (Image credit: público domain.)
The early Janssen microscopes were compound microscopes, which use at least two lenses. The objective lens is positioned close to ns object e produces an image that is choose up and magnified additional by a second lens, called a eyepiece.
A Middelburg museum has uma of a earliest Janssen microscopes, date to 1595. It had actually three slide tubes para different lenses, no decorrer tripod e was qualified of magnifying 3 to nine times the true size. Notícia about the microscopes spread out quickly across Europe.
Galileo Galilei soon improved upon a compound microscope projeto in 1609. Galileo dubbed his an equipment an occhiolino, or "little eye."
English scientist robert Hooke improved a microscope, too, and explored a structure of snowflakes, fleas, lice and plants. The coined the term "cell" from the latin cella, which way "small room," because he compared a cells he witnessed in cork to a small rooms that monks lived in. In 1665, and detailed his observations in ns book "Micrographia."
Early compound microscopes provided more magnification than solitary lens microscopes; however, they additionally distorted a image more. Dutch scientist artelel van Leeuwenhoek designed high-powered solitary lens microscopes in the 1670s. Com these he era the first to describe sperm (or spermatozoa) são de dogs and humans. He likewise studied yeast, vermelho blood cells, bacteria em ~ the mouth and protozoa. Van Leeuwenhoek"s solitary lens microscopes could magnify up to 270 equipe larger than actual size. Single lens microscopes remained difundido well into a 1830s, as tudo de types the microscopes improved.
Scientists were additionally developing new ways come prepare and contrast their specimens. In 1882, the German physician robert Koch presented his exploration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ns bacilli responsible ao tuberculosis. Koch went on to use his staining technique to isolate the bacteria responsible para cholera.
The very best microscopes to be approaching der limit by a beginning of ns 20th century. A traditional optical (light) microscopic lense can"t fix objects smaller than ns wavelength of visible light. But in 1931, German scientists ernst Ruska e Max Knoll overcame this theoretical obstacle with ns electron microscope.
Ernst Ruska ser estar born the last that five children on Christmas day 1906, in Heidelberg, Germany. He studied electronic devices at ns Technical college in Munich e went on come study alto voltage e vacuum technology at the Technical college of Berlin. It was there the Ruska and his adviser, Dr. Max Knoll, primeiro created a “lens” of der magnetic field e electrical current. By 1933, ns pair constructed an electron microscope that could surpass ns magnifying nível of the optical microscopic lense at a time.
Ernst won the nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 ao his work. Ns electron microscope could achieve much greater resolution since an electron"s wavelength is smaller than a wavelength of clearly shows light, particularly when a electron is accelerated in naquela vacuum.
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Both electron and light microscopy advanced in ns 20th century. Today, labs may use fluorescent sign or polarized filters to vejo specimens, or they use computers to capture and analyze pictures that wouldn"t be clearly shows to the human eye. There are reflecting microscopes, phase contrast microscopes, confocal microscopes e even ultraviolet microscopes. Modern-day microscopes can even image der single atom.